- Why does monitoring receive special attention?
- What is reflexive monitoring?
- How is reflexive monitoring different?
- What are the other objectives of evaluation and monitoring?
- Can learning be combined with accountability?
- Why is participation important?
- What is the role of the reflexive monitor?
- What are the monitorís tasks?
- Is an external monitor necessary?
- What do I monitor or evaluate?
How is reflexive monitoring different?
Ways in which reflexive monitoring differs from ‘traditional' monitoring include the following:
- The point of departure is normative because reflexive monitoring is guided by the ambitions for system innovation in the programme or project together with the underlying theory (on this point, see also ‘About transitions')
- It is a continuous process of reflection and action (learning-by-doing) and a powerful tool for programme management
- It is attuned to the (long term) ambitions and the system approach in the programme, and identifies weak and early signals for change
- it incorporates external landscape developments, looking for barriers and drivers that may impact the outcome in term of long term systems innovation
- reflexive monitoring is a participatory process, actively involving stakeholders, programme managers, financers and so forth
- the participants engage in critical reflection on drivers and barriers - be they institutional obstacles, ‘mental models' or deeper convictions and cultural values - to generate creative ideas to overcome barriers and to benefit from drivers
- reflexive monitoring not only raises questions about the actual performance of activities, but also about the objectives, target groups and strategies of the programme or project, and by doing so helps strengthening coherence throughout the programme.